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A 37-year-old client with paranoid schizophrenia believes that his room is bugged by the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) and that his roommate is a foreign spy. The client has never had a romantic relationship, has no contact with family members, and hasn't been employed in the last 15 years. Based on Erikson's theories, the nurse should recognize that this client is in which stage of psychosocial development?

1. Autonomy versus shame and doubt
2. Generativity versus stagnation
3. Integrity versus despair
4. Trust versus mistrust


This client's paranoid indeation indicates difficulty trusting others. The stage of autonomy versus shame and doubt deals with separation, cooperation, and self-control. Generativity versus stagnation is the normal stage for this client's chronologic age. Integrity versus despair is the stage for accepting the positive and negative aspects of one's life, which would be difficult or impossible for this client.


Member since: April 2011
(Boynton Beach,FL) Original question source

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