Added on 12/31/2012
|1.||Right heart failure.|
|2.||Left heart failure.|
|3.||Both right and left failure.|
Left heart failure produces increased pulmonary congestion and therefore elevated pulmonary artery pressures. A normal PA is 25/10 mmHg. Pink, frothy sputum and exaggerated symptoms would be present for pulmonary edema to be diagnosed. Right-sided heart failure includes signs of peripheral edema. The key in the question is the presence of crackles, which would be associated with left failure.
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